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Fusion Technology

 

 

~~Master in Nuclear Engineering (MNE)
European Master in Nuclear Energy (EMINE)

 FUSION TECHNOLOGY Course

In the framwork of the Master in Nuclear Engineering (MNE) and European Master in Nuclear Energy (EMINE)


• Coordinator professor:

Javier Dies, FEEL-DFEN-UPC

• Invited lectures:


• Carlos Alejaldre, ITER, Cadarache
• Jean Marc Anne, CEA, Cadarache
• Mario Cavinato, Fusion for Energy, Barcelona
• Carlo Damiani,Fusion for Energy, Barcelona
• Ives Poitevin, Fusion for Energy, Barcelona
• Alfredo Portone,  Fusion for Energy, Barcelona
• Joaquin Sanchez, Ciemat
• Paul Wouters, Fusion for Energy, Barcelona

 

• Lectures:
Guillem Cortes, FEEL-DFEN-UPC.
Alfredo de Blas, FEEL-DFEN-UPC.
 

CONTENTS 

1. Aims and Objectives.
2. Organization.
3. Content.
4. Learning and Assessment Methods.


4.1. Lectures and Case Examples.
4.2. Multimedia Resources.
4.3.Laboratoy  work.
 - Simulation of a Nuclear Fusion Reactor.
4.4. Technical Visit to ITER site and Tore Supra.


5. Program Overview.
6. Schedule Course.
7. Examination System.
8. Student Support and Guidance.
9. European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE).
10. Internships in Fusion technology
11. References.
 
 FUSION TECHNOLOGY.
1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.
a) To present the basic physics necessary in order to understand the development of nuclear fusion energy.
b) To provide the state of art of the different technological ways towards the achievement of a commercial fusion reactor.
c)  To introduce the technological aspects required for the fusion energy production.
d) To provide the elemental background and tools for performance evaluations and calculations.
e) To present the ITER project, the technological aspects, the objectives, and the construction schedule.

2. ORGANIZATION.
The subject of Nuclear Fusion is 4.5 ECTS, is taken during the second semester of the current course, on Friday from 12:00 to 14:00. 

3. CONTENT.
A review of basic physics determining the behaviour of thermonuclear fusion reactor plasmas is provided.
Different plasma confinement systems are presented in view of their real developments status and futures perspectives for the achievement of a fusion commercial reactor.
Different technologies required for energy extraction, fuel recycling, plasma heating and magnetic fields creation are introduced.  Special attention will be made to the technological concepts related to the ITER project.

4. LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT METHODS.
4.1. LECTURES AND CASE EXAMPLES.
Lectures are devoted to form the content of the subject, and some case examples enable to retain and quantify the presented concepts.
These lecture sessions are supported by slides that graphically complement the main ideas of the presentations. Previous to that, the slides are distributed to the students, making easy to follow the explanations.
The “Digital Campus” ATENEA will be used throughout the course.

4.2. MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES.
Some technological aspects of the subject are complemented by multimedia projections:
- Magnetic confinement Fusion.
- Tore Supra. (Superconducting materials used in this experimental fusion device).
-  JET, Joint European Torus.

4.3. LAB WORK.
The following lab work has been prepared with the aim of motivating the student:
• Use of a Nuclear Fusion Reactor Simulator type Tokamak for educational purposes.
This lab work will be carried out at the computer room class of the ETSEIB. The students individually will simulate the following cases:

P1. Reproduction of actual experiences of fusion devices (JET, Tore Supra).
P2. ITER fusion reactor operation simulation.
P3. Plasma confinement improvement in a fusion reactor. Safety factor profile inversion, magnetic shear.
  (10 hours)
Methodology for the development of the lab work:
- Presentation of the software: content, models included, and data base required.
 - Running of the simulation program: definition of input parameters and data, output data and storage.
- Analysis of the results.
- Guidance for the answers of the stated questions, and report elaboration.  

 


4.4. TECHNICAL VISIT.

Technical visit to the ITER site and the reactor Tore Supra in CEA, France:


-Visit the ITER site in Cadarache. France. This is a thermonuclear reactor of 500 MW of nominal power, is a tokamak reactor. The coils are superconducting.  The budget is about 15.000 M€. This is the second biggest international project in the world. With the participation of: EEUU, Japón, Europa, China, Rusia, Corea, and India.
  http://www.iter.org
-Tore Supra is a thermonuclear fusion reactor type Tokamak, builded in 1989. The toroidal magnetic fields are created by using superconducting coils. The reactor is operated by the “Departament de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée”, of the “Commissariat d'Energie Atomique”, “Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion”,  Cadarache France.
http://www-cad.cea.fr
(7 hours + travel)
 
Figure: ETSEIB-UPC students in front of platform where ITER is built in Cadarache (France) during technical visit.
 
Figure: ETSEIB-UPC Students in front of Tore Supra reactor in Cadarache (Francia) during technical visit.


A special relevance is given to technological aspects related to the different heating and cooling methods as the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), Radio Frequency (RF) heating systems, cryogenic systems, electrical systems for the generation of magnetic fields, and plasma diagnostics.

Visit Program:
Sunday 15 – March - 2015


Departure: -11h, main door ETSIIB-UPC.
Lunch: -14h15 Area Narbonne, Motorway Barcelona –Marseille station. (Picnic or in bar, or in restaurant)
Diner: -free in Aix en Provence, (Suggestion 20h Restaurant Flunch)
Hotel: - Hotel Le Globe, Cours Sextius 74, AIX EN PROVENCE

Monday 16 – March- 2014

7h30  -Breakfast
8h00  -Departure to C.E.N. Cadarache.
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

08h45  Welcome of the visitors at the entrance of the Iter construction worksite (towards Vinon-sur-Verdon, North Access)

9-12.30
  Visit of Tore Supra
Dr. Jean Marc Anne
Hall machine and montage
Power supply systems
Control room
Visit to Tore Supra diagnostic systems.

12.30-13.45
 
Lunch at the Espace Club at CEA  (about 15 €)

14h -15h 
Explanations of the Iter worksite progress and site tour


15h-16h 
Presentation of Iter scientific and technical stakes
Dr. Carlos Alejaldre Deputy Director General

Note:
 -the participants have to present the carte identity o passport at the entrance of CEA and ITER. 
-registration: representat of students.
 (Non Europeans have to deliver his passport scanned in digital form).


(Update: 14-2-2015)

 
Professor Ph.D.:  Javier Dies
 

 

4.5. Digital Campus
The Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña has developed a DIGITAL CAMPUS called ATENEA.

In order to increase the communication between the student and the professor, in the developing of this course it will be used the Digital Campus as an additional way of communication.

The Digital Campus in the course Nuclear Fusión is used for:
- Mark the students in the different activities.
- Notice the conference, videoconference and seminars.
- Notice the changes in dates and hours of the course schedule: (visit, evaluations, lectures, lab work, etc.)
- Arrange meetings between the professor and the student.
- The professor can see the student’ cv.
- To send documentation.
- General notice (jobs vacancies, fellowships, etc.).
5. PROGRAM OVERVIEW:
0. Presentation of the subject (1h).

1. Introduction (3h).

1.1. Energy Resources.
1.2. Fusion Reactions.
1.3. Fuels.
1.4. Fusion products. 
1.5. Thermonuclear fusion history.

2. Fusion reactions rate (5h).

2.1.  Plasma kinetics
2.2.  Thermonuclear plasma evolution
2.3.  Cross sections
2.4.  Two Maxwellian distributions
2.5.  A monoenergetic beam and a Maxwelliam distribution
2.6.  Fusion reaction rate
2.7.  Fusion reaction rate in plasmas with only one kind of particles .
2.8.  Power density.  Fluency.

3. Energy losses (3h).

3.1.  Radiative Power losses, Bremsstrahlung
3.2.  Cyclotron radiation power loss.
3.3.  Recombination
3.4.  Charge exchange 

4. Thermonuclear plasma balance (3h).

4.1. Lawson’s criteria.
4.2. Conservation equations.
4.3. Thermal equilibrium and ignition temperature.

5. Plasma confinement systems (5h).

5.1 Introduction. Classification.
5.2. Open systems. Magnetic mirrors: confinement system; simple mirror, lowest B mirror; baseball mirror, Ying-yang mirror.
5.3. Closed systems: Introduction, Stability, Magnetic fields (toroidal, pooidal).
5.4. Tokamaks: JET. Tore-Supra, DIII-D. ITER.
5.5. Stellarators: TJ-II, LHD, Wendeistain 7-AS, Wendeistain 7-X.


6. Heating systems (2h).

6.1. Ohmic heating.
6.2. Neutral Beam Infection (NBI).
6.3. Adiabatic compression.
6.4. Radio Frequency (RF) heating.
6.5. Relativistic electrons heating.

7. Plasma impurity. Fuel breeding (2h).

7.1. Impurities: effects, concentrations.
7.2. Helium accumulation.
7.3. Divertors.
7.4. Fuel breeding: gas blanking, NBI’s.
 
8. Energy extractor systems (2h).

8.1. Fusion reactor’s thermohydraulics.
8.2. Blanket design.
8.3. Energy Direct Conversion.

9. Diagnostic systems (2h).

9.1. Measure of density.
9.2. Measure of temperature.
9.3. Measures of fusion products.

10. Neutronics. Tritium production (2h).

10.1. Neutronic flux distribution.
10.2. Tritium production rate.
10.3. Neutron effects on reactor materials.
10.4. Shielding design.

11. Inertial fusion (2h).

11.1. Introduction.
11.2. Lawson’s criteria in ICS.
11.3. Inertial confinement steps.
11.4. Laser fusion: laser. Energy exchange with plasma.
11.5. Particles beams fusion: relativistic electrons, ions.

 

 

12. ITER project (4h)

 12.1. Main characteristics.
 12.2. Design.
 12.3. Construction schedule and planning.
 12.4. Operation planning.
 12.5. Safety and Environmental Impact.
 

 


 
6. SCHEDULE OF 2014 COURSE:

Beginning 20-2-2015: Friday from 12:00 pm to 14:00 pm. Ending: 12-6-2014.

• V: TECHNICAL VISIT.
15 AND 16 Marc
 
• PARTIAL EXAMINATION
 April

• A: FINAL EXAMINATION
12 Juny


• INVITED CONFERENCE
JOAQUIN SANCHEZ
DIRECTOR LABORATORIO NACIONAL DE FUSION
PRESENTATION TJ-II FUSION REACTOR
DATA: , May 8h30 -10h

•         INVITED CONFERENCE

ALFREDO PORTONE
FUSION FOR ENERGY
DESIGN PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES IN THE ITER FUSION REACTOR
DATA:  May, 17h -19h

•         INVITED CONFERENCE

PAUL WOUTERS
FUSION FOR ENERGY
INTRODUCTION FOR ITER SAFETY PROGRAMME
DATA:  May, 17h -19h

•         INVITED CONFERENCE
MARIO CAVINATO
FUSION FOR ENERGY
PLASMA CONTROL
DATA:  April, 17h -19h


•         INVITED CONFERENCE
IVES POITEVIN
FUSION FOR ENERGY
TRITIUM BREEDER BLANKETS FOR FUSION REACTOR
DATA:  Juny, 17h -19h

•         INVITED CONFERENCE
CARLO DAMIANI
FUSION FOR ENERGY
REMOTE HANDLING IN ITER
DATA: Juny, 17h -19h

 

• LAB WORK 1 (COMPUTER ROOM: FUSION REACTOR SIMULATOR).
Computer room ETSEIB 5.0. 
Computer room ETSEIB 5.0. 
Computer room ETSEIB 5.0.
(rev. 14-02-2015)

 


7. EXAMINATION SYSTEM:

The student performances are assessed both by the continuous learning exams (50%), named NAC, and by the continuous work participation (50%), named NAEP.
On the one hand, the qualification of the theoretical knowledge is determined by two exams. The first one will be done after the lecture of about 4 topics (NACET), and the second one will involve all the contents (NE). On the other hand, the qualification of the continuous work participation will be determined by the lab work reports (MP), the presence to the different lab works (AP),  the participation to the technical visit (V), the attendance to the invited conferences (IC).
Finally, the final qualification (NF) will be the maximum of the following qualifications:
NF = Maximum (NF1 , NF2  )
NF1 = NE
NF2 = r * NE + (1- r) * NAC
NAC = q * NAEP + (1- q) * NACET
NAEP=1/4. MP + 1/4. AP + 1/4 .V + 1/4 IC
            r = 0,5         q = 0,5      

NF         =Final qualification
    NE         =Second exam result
    NAC     =Qualification of the continuous learning exams
    NAEP   = Qualification of the continuous work participation
 NACET = First exam result

Rules for the exams:

The continuous learning exams will consist in a written test with no literature or notes support.

 

8. STUDENT SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE:
The staff of Professors of the Nuclear Fusion subject is available for any doubt, comment or information the student could require, as well as for the orientation and guidance of the course. To make it easy students can arrange by agreement with the Professor by e-mail, telephone, at the end of the sessions, or at the secretary of the “Secció d’Enginyeria Nuclear”, Pavelló C, ETSEIB.
• Coordinator professor:

Javier Dies, FEEL-DFEN,   Javier.Dies@upc.edu     Tel. 934017144,
• Invited lectures:
Carlos Alejaldre, ITER, Cadarache.
Jean Marc Anne, CEA, Cadarache.
Mario Cavinato, Fusion For Energy, F4E, BCN
Carlo Damiani, Fusion For Energy, F4E, BCN
Ives Poitevin, Fusion For Energy, F4E, BCN
Alfredo Portone, Fusion For Energy,  F4E, BCN
Joaquin Sanchez, Asociación Euratom Ciemat para la Fusion, Ciemat
Paul Wouters, Fusion For Energy, F4E, BCN


• Lectures:
Guillem Cortes, FEEL-DFEN-UPC.
Alfredo de Blas,  FEEL-DFEN-UPC.

9. European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE):
The 4.5 ECTS of this course can be consider to obtain the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE) of the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN).
http://www.enen-assoc.org/en/activities/emsne.html

10. Infership in Fusion:  F4E, ITER, Fusenet


 

10.1. Internship in Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain).
This year Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain), started a new procedure for internships at F4E.
Between five and six months. Can be part of academic program in UPC Master, MNE and EMINE.
The internship can start in February or July.
Internship about 1000 €/month
See web de Fusion for Energy, or send an email to silvia.madrid@f4e.europa.eu

10.2. Internship in ITER (Cadarache-Francia).
This year, ITER (Cadarache, France), started a new procedure for internships at ITER.
Internship for six months. Can be part of academic program in UPC Master, MNE and EMINE.
The program is open to students from the countries members of ITER: China, Europe, India, Japan, Russia, Sud Corea, and USA,
The internship can start in February or July.
Internship about   ¿ €/month ?
See web of ITER. Or send an email to:  Severine.Cuvelier@iter.org


10.3. Internship /Master Thesis in universities/institutions of FUSENET network.

The European Fusion Education Network (FUSENET) has stabilised a scholarships programme to develop master thesis and internship.
You can attend to the universities and institutions from FUSENET network.
Between five and six months. Can be part of academic program in UPC Master, MNE and EMINE.
You can start this programme at any time of the year. You have to achieve an agreement about the schedule with the host institution.
FUSENET will support the Internship with 500 €/month + 500 € for travels.
Application procedure very ease and fast.
UPC is member of FUSENET. The contact person at UPC for FUSENET is Prof.  PhD. Javier Dies, he will sign your application form for the FUSENET scholarship.
Se FUSENET web page for more information. http://www.fusenet.eu/

11. REFERENCES:
Basic Literature:
1. Raeder, J. (1986): Controlled nuclear Fusion, fundamentals of its utilization for energy supply, Wiley & Sons, New York, 316 págs.
2. Wesson, J. (2004): “Tokamaks”, Oxford Science publications, Clarendon press- Oxford, 680 pag.
3. Dolan, J.J. (1982): Fusion research. Perganon Press, (tres volúmens).
4. Dies, J.; Albajar, F.; Fontanet, J. (2012); "Simulator of nuclear fusion reactor ,tipus tokamak, for educational proposals ", 94 pag., Barcelona.
5. Dies, J.; (2012); "Slides of Nuclear Fusion, ITER”, Digital campus,  Barcelona.
6.  DG XII Fusion Programme “dominar la energia de las estrellas”, CD-Rom, 2003. 
Complimentary Literature:
1. Hutchinson, I.H., (2000): “Principles of plasma diagnostics”, Cambridge University press, 364 pag.

2. Masahiro Wakatami (1998) ;  “Stellarators and heliotron devices”, Oxford University Press. 

3. CEA (1987), La fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée par confinement magnétique. Masson.

4. Kammash,T.(1975): Fusion Reactor Physics, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

5. JET, Joint Undertaking (1995), JET Progress Report, EUR  EN, EUR-JET-PR8.

6. Jeffrey Freidberg (2007); “Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy”, Cambridge University press, 671 pag.


Other References and materials:
http://nerg.upc.edu/

 http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu

http://www.iter.org
http://www.fusenet.eu/

 

Institution: 
Technical University of Catalonia, Spain